Since the bombings of the Murrah federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995, and of the Khubar Towers in Saudi Arabia in 1996, terrorism prevention became a top priority in construction standards. But despite technological progress, terrorism and explosions still cause fear.
Terrorism is one of the most dangerous problem the world is facing today. It has caused the feeling of insecurity among the people despite of the advancement in technology, counterintelligence the problem remains unsolved. Despite the fact that the magnitude of the explosion and the loads caused by it cannot be anticipated perfectly efforts can be made to reduce the consequences of the explosion. Due to advancement in technology, it is now possible to get to a reliable conclusion. The analysis and design of structures subjected to blast loads require a detailed understanding of blast phenomena and the dynamic response of various structural elements. The use of advanced non-linear analyses (Applied Element Method in particular) is capable on one hand to capture the phenomena realistically and in the other hand to optimize costs (for constructions or strengthening).
Due to the nature of extreme loads resulting from blasts, large amounts of structural damage can usually be expected. This damage cannot be studied solely as the initial loading type, but it must be also studied considering the secondary effects of the failing elements on other parts of the structure.
1. Initial Load: The initial load is the type of loading which may cause damage to a main supporting column and which can lead to a progressive collapse.
2. Secondary Effects: The secondary effects come from flying debris. This may cause another failure in other main supporting elements and can result in the structure losing its ability to carry the increased loads, leading to a total failure.
Hopper Engineering and Consultancy the ability to analyse a structure right down to element separation and secondary collision.